The largest lakes of the world
o lake Michigan 58 thousand km2;
o lake Huron – 59,6 thousand km2;
o lake Victoria 68 thousand km2;
o lake superior is estimated at 82.4 thousand km2;
o sea-Caspian lake – 376 thousand km2.
The deepest lakes of the world are:
o Issyk-Kul – 668 meters;
o Niassa – 706 meters;
o the Caspian sea – lake – 1025 meters;
o Tanganyika is 1470 meters;
lake Baikal is 1620 meters.
The largest lake on the planet Earth is the Caspian sea, it is located in the internal regions of Eurasia and contains 78 thousand cubic kilometers of water – more than 40% of the total water lakes in the world, by area, the lake superior even to the Black sea. The sea, the lake is called that only because it has the most marine of the properties of large – area, large volume of water, severe storms, and specific hydrochemical conditions.
From the South to the North of the lake, the Caspian sea stretches for almost 1,200 miles, and from West to East it stretches from 200 to 450 kilometers.
Origin this is the oldest part of the salted lake bluff, which existed 5 to 7 million years ago. In the ice age into the Caspian sea from Arctic waters penetrated such animals as salmon, seals, small crustaceans and inconnu; in this lake there are some species of Mediterranean fish left over from the connection of the Caspian sea and the Mediterranean and Black seas.
In the Caspian sea the water level is constantly changing, but, in General, it is below the General ocean level; the reasons for changes in water level which is still less clear. The Caspian sea also changes its shape. In the early twentieth level of the Caspian sea was about -26 meters towards the ocean, and in 1972 recorded the lowest for the last three hundred years the water level of 29 meters, then the water level in the sea began with a small temp rise, and at the moment he is about -27,9 meters. The Caspian lake was about seven dozen different names: Derbent, Sarai, Khazar, khvalyn, Hirkan and others. The modern name was coined for the sea in honor of the ancient tribes of horse breeders (Caspians), who lived in the first century BC in North-Western coasts.
The deepest lake in the world Baikal – 1620 meters, it is located in the southern part of Eastern Siberia. The lake has a height of 456 meters above the sea level, the length of the lake is 636 kilometers, the greatest width of the lake reaches in the Central part of 81 km. There are a couple of different versions about the origin of the name of the lake, for example, Bai-Kul from Turkic is “rich lake”, and if from the Mongolian Baigal-Dalai, means “large lake”. Lake Baikal also includes the 27 island, the largest of them is Olkhon island. Into this lake flows about 300 streams and rivers, and leaves only the Angara river. Baikal lake is quite old, as it is about 20-25 million years. 85% of animal species and 40% of the plants that live in lake Baikal are endemic (i.e. these species can only be seen here). The water volume of lake Baikal is 23 thousand km3, about 90% of freshwater Russia and 20% of the world’s freshwater. Baikal’s water is unique by its extraordinary transparency, frequency, and oxygen saturation. The lake has 58 species of fish (sturgeon, taimen, grayling, whitefish, Cisco and others) and is home to the Baikal seal – a typical mammal.
The Eastern part of North America is rich in Great lakes, the basin of the river St. Lawrence contains lakes: Ontario, Erie, Michigan, Huron and Upper. These lakes are degrees, the height difference between the last four to nine meters, and the lake Ontario is almost a hundred meters lower than lake Erie. The lake is connected between the short wet and wild rivers. On the Niagara river, which connects lake Ontario with lake Erie, was formed Niagara falls (the height of about fifty meters). Great lakes is the largest fresh water accumulation on the Ground (22,7 thousand km3). The lake was created in a time when melting huge ice cap of the Northern part of the continent of North America. For all time of existence of these lakes repeatedly changed its shape. The Northern shores of the lakes is quite steep and rocky, but very picturesque, and the South-East with the South coast, in turn, sandy, clayey and mostly low. The shores of the Great lakes are quite densely populated, there are very powerful industrial parts together with the largest cities of the United States: Buffalo, Detroit, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Chicano, and II largest canadian city Toronto. To bypass rapids of the rivers that connect the lakes, built canals and created a continuous water route for ships from the Great lakes into the Atlantic ocean. This path has a length of about three thousand kilometers, and its depth is greater than eight meters, it makes it accessible to larger ships.
The longest lake in the world is lake Tanganyika in Africa, this lake was formed in the tectonic depression of the East African faults. The greatest depth of the lake is 1470 meters, is the world’s second deepest after lake Baikal. The shoreline of Tanganyika is 1900 kilometers, here is the border of 4 countries of Africa: Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Burundi. This ancient lake, it is home to about 170 species of endemic fish species. Living organisms populated the lake up to two hundred meter depth, and below there are deposits of sulfide. The shores of Tanganyika is quite rocky and indented by numerous gulfs and bays.