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The Lake of the separate zones and provinces


For specific zones and province observed its peculiarities in the origin and regime of the lakes of the CIS. In the tundra and taiga of Middle and Eastern Siberia thermokarst lakes dominate, the Genesis of which is associated with thawing of permafrost. In most cases it is the small ponds freeze to the bottom, with a water mass of acidic, poor in fauna and flora, the so-called distrofia lake.

In the provincial forest and tundra of Western Siberia and the Russian plains is dominated by lakes of glacial or glacial-tectonic origin. Are they the best in the North West province of the Russian plain, called “Lakeland”. The size and depth of lakes more thermokarst, frost penetration to the bottom is observed in rare years, the water in lakes is fresh, often enriched with organic matter. In terms of nutrition — it’s pretty rich waters, often with large fisheries. Many of them intensively zavolakivaya, in many lakes there is a lack of oxygen.

Abundant in lakes of forest-steppe and steppe of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan, which contributes greatly to the flat terrain. Basin lakes in these provinces is usually small, flat, saucer, apparently, suffusion of origin. The power comes at the expense of thawed snow waters, almost without involvement of rain, which leads to a drastic reduction in the size of lakes or even a complete drying out in summer. The characteristic diversity of the chemical composition of lake waters in Western Siberia — from fresh to highly mineralized. Great industrial significance of many of the lakes of the forest steppes and steppes of Western Siberia (Kulunda, Kuchuk, Petrovsky). They produced soda, mirabilite, salt, and other important for the chemical industry salt.

On the coasts of some South sea, Black and Azov for example, are located at the mouths of rivers a kind lake — the estuaries, the origin of which is associated with transgression of the sea onto the land and with the accumulative activity of rivers (Hadzhibeevsky, Kuyalnik, Yeisk, etc.). The regime of such lakes is under the mutual influence of the sea and the river, if the lake is not managed tightly to create a distance from the sea. Lakes of this type are used for balneological purposes and the production in them of mineral salts for the chemical industry.

In the mountain regions of the CIS, in addition to the tectonic, glacial, karst and karst, select a group dammed lakes, formed by landslides in the mountains, blocked the narrow mountain valley. An example of this type serve Pamir lake Yashil-Kul and Sarez.

The crater lake basins which are former craters and Caldera, is most prevalent in Kamchatka (Kronikos, Kuril, etc.), much less in the Caucasus.

Along with open water basins type of seas and oceans, there are closed basins, which plays a role of a reservoir of groundwater. Among them are, according to M. M. Vasilevsky and N. I. Tolstihina, hydrological basins and hydrogeological mountain-folded area. Typical examples of hydrogeological basins in the CIS are the Eastern European group on the Russian plain, Western Siberia in Western Siberia, the Tungus-Yakut in Central Siberia and many others, are found in tectonic basins and depressions, surrounded by mountains or hills or with individual parties communicating with seas (for example, the Pechora group hydrogeological basins on the Russian plain).